What is a risk factor?

A risk factor is anything that may increase a person's chance of developing a disease. It may be an activity, such as smoking, diet, family history, or many other things. Different diseases, including cancers, have different risk factors.

Although these factors can increase a person's risk, they do not necessarily cause the disease. Some people with one or more risk factors never develop cancer, while others develop cancer and have no known risk factors.

But, knowing your risk factors to any disease can help to guide you into the appropriate actions, including changing behaviors and being clinically monitored for the disease.

Conditions A-Z - Vaginal Cancer

Illustration of the anatomy of the female pelvic area

What is the vagina?

The vagina is the passageway through which fluid passes out of the body during menstrual periods. It is also called the "birth canal." The vagina connects the cervix (the opening of the womb, or uterus) and the vulva (the external genitalia).

What is vaginal cancer?

Cancer of the vagina, a rare kind of cancer in women, is a disease in which malignant cells are found in the tissues of the vagina. According to the American Cancer Society (ACS), about 2,210 cases of vaginal cancer will be diagnosed in the US in 2008.

There are several types of cancer of the vagina. The two most common are:

  • squamous cell cancer (squamous carcinoma)
    • Squamous carcinoma is most often found in women between the ages of 60 and 80, and accounts for 85-90 percent of all vaginal cancers.
  • adenocarcinoma
    • Adenocarcinoma is more often found in women older than 50 and accounts for 5-10 percent of all vaginal cancers.
    • A rare form of cancer called clear cell adenocarcinoma results from the use of the drug DES (diethylstilbestrol) given to pregnant women between 1945 and 1970 to keep them from miscarrying.

Other types of vaginal cancer include:

  • malignant melanoma
  • leiomyosarcoma
  • rhabdomyosarcoma

What are risk factors for vaginal cancer?

The following have been suggested as risk factors for vaginal cancer:

  • age
    Over two-thirds of women are 60 or older when diagnosed.
  • exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) as a fetus (mother took DES during pregnancy)
  • history of cervical cancer
  • history of cervical precancerous conditions
  • human papillomavirus (HPV) infection
  • vaginal adenosis
  • vaginal irritation
  • uterine prolapse
  • smoking

What are the symptoms of vaginal cancer?

The following are the most common symptoms of vaginal cancer. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:

  • bleeding or discharge not related to menstrual periods
  • difficult or painful urination
  • pain during intercourse
  • pain in the pelvic area
  • constipation
  • a mass that can be felt

Even if a woman has had a hysterectomy, she still has a chance of developing vaginal cancer. The symptoms of vaginal cancer may resemble other conditions or medical problems. Consult a physician for diagnosis.

How is vaginal cancer diagnosed?

There are several tests used to diagnose vaginal cancer, including:

  • pelvic examination of the vagina, and other organs in the pelvis, checking for tumors, lumps, or masses (i.e., may include colposcopy).
  • Pap test (also called Pap smear) - test that involves microscopic examination of cells collected from the cervix, used to detect changes that may be cancer or may lead to cancer, and to show noncancerous conditions, such as infection or inflammation.
  • biopsy - removal of sample of tissue via a hollow needle or scalpel.

Treatment for vaginal cancer:

Specific treatment for vaginal cancer will be determined by your physician based on:

  • your overall health and medical history
  • extent of the disease
  • your tolerance for specific medications, procedures, or therapies
  • expectations for the course of the disease
  • your opinion or preference

Generally, there are three kinds of treatment available for patients with cancerous or precancerous conditions of the vagina:

  • surgery, including:
    • laser surgery to remove the cancer, including LEEP (loop electroexcision procedure)
    • local excision to remove the cancer
    • (partial) vaginectomy to remove the vagina
  • chemotherapy (topical)
  • radiation therapy

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